Our work in this area encompasses the following:

1. Environmental management plans & audits;

2. Environmental impact assessments;

3. Advise on the health and toxicological effects of any parameter in water;

4. In-depth training and expertise on all aspects of water quality, sanitation and surveillance programs;

5. Research onappropriate Water Quality Standards for,:

- Drinking Water,

- Recreational Water,

- Raw Surface and Ground Water,

- Waste Water.

6. Natural resource management;

7. Engineering services;

- Geotechnical Surveys

- Topographical survey

- Cadastral Surveys

- Mine design and construction supervision

- Analysis, Design and Implementation of water related information systems

- Use of G.P.S. and other modern surveying equipment

Environmental management plans & audits

The Scoping & Feasibility stages are included in the planning.

Planning outlines the standard phases of the Project Cycle:

- Planning;

- Preconstruction;

- Operational;

- Decommissioning.

For each of the phases of the Project (feasibility, planning, construction, operation and decommissioning) the positive and negative impacts on all spheres of the environment shall be identified, on the basis of the outputs of the Sectoral Studies and additional predictive work.

Environmental Impact Assessment

This is an analytical process for identifying and assessing the potential environmental impacts of a project in its different phases (construction, operation and decommissioning)

The assessment is usually given in report format and gives a detailed description of the Project as understood from the Client, literature review, and progress reports and other material availed to the Consultant.

The description includes:

- maps and diagrams showing the location;

- general layout;

- size etc. of the project and the projected infrastructure to be introduced;

- details on requisite staffing and support facilities and services;

- operation and maintenance activities;

- required off-site investments to fully operationalise the project.

Occupational Health & Safety

This exercise is usually included included in the EIA report.

Existing safety and occupational health risks from historic and proposed operations are identified by site visits and interviews.

The size of dust particles and their compositions especially during the construction phase are determined in this exercise.

Detailed aspects of accident, fire and working at height management plans are also included in the exercise.

Noting the above helps to minimise occurrence of accidents during the construction phase of a proposed project.


Scoping refers to the early, open and interactive process of determining the major issues and impacts that will be important in decision-making on a project.

The scoping process identifies the issues that are likely to be of most importance and significance during an Environmental impact assessment(EIA).

Scoping ensures that EIA studies are focused on the significant effects and time and money are not wasted on unnecessary investigations

Fieldwork Studies

This survey describes and evaluates the present baseline data on the relevant environmental parameters of the study area.

It is an initial impact identificationdone on the basis of environmental expert groupings or sectors, such as water, socio-economics, geology, hydrology, soils, and ecology and so on.

The sectors are explained below:


- Hydrology

- Water Quality


Hydrology is the scientific study of the properties, distribution, and effects of water on the earth’s surface, in the soil and underlying rocks, and in the atmosphere.

Critical issues will include presence of water courses, streams, rivers, dams, pans, surface run-off from concession area and nearby areas, storm-water drainage, position and character of wetlands, and positions of flood levels.

Other data may be reviewed from literature, and records from the client internal documentation.

Water Quality

Baseline water quality variables, sampled from both surface water and groundwater, are assessed against World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines and the Zimbabwean Water (Waste and Effluent Disposal) Regulations S.I 6 of 2007.

In addition the quality of the aquatic environment and the riparian vegetation is also assessed.


Geochemical sampling of soils is carried out in order to establish the current levels of elements which will act as the background/baseline level, for a project.

The soils are tested for elemental concentration and geotechnical properties.


The general biological environment of the project is investigated.

Aerial photos/satellite images of the project area are used to determine the vegetation structure before the construction operations start.

The vegetation of the area is mapped and commonly occurring fauna, endangered species and their preferred habitats is also determined.

Social-Cultural Environment

The regional socio-economic structure is investigated.

Population density, growth and structure, unemployment levels, housing, social infrastructure, income sources, household economies, livelihood strategies and movements.

This shall is done through a detailed scoping exercise, public meetings, structured interviews and consultations with local government officials, supplemented by surveys as needed.

Sites of cultural importance are also identified by consultation with the local traditional leadership.

Identifying Stakeholder Concerns

These include regulatory authorities as well as interested and affected parties

Each sector expert conducts wide consultation with the appropriate I& APs with regards to proposed construction and operation of the project.

However, all responses will be integrated and evaluated for incorporation into socio-economic impact assessment and ultimate use in the mitigation recommendations.

Research Design

Detailed data is collected by interviewing a broad range of targeted stakeholders, observations, documents and audio-taped material.

Data collection steps for this study include setting the boundaries for the study, collecting information through unstructured or semi-structured interviews, documents and observations, as well as establishing the protocol for recording information.


- Interviews

- Archives/Documentaries

- Observations


The consultant selects participants from the public as well as the private companies, and also from government departments.

Qualitative research is done to purposefully select participants or sites (or documents or visual material) that will best help the researcher understand the problem and the research question, in relation to the project.

Identify four aspects of participants and sites:

- the setting (where the research will take place).

- the actors (who will be observed or interviewed),

- the events (what the actors will be observed or interviewed doing),

- the process (the evolving nature of events undertaken by the actors within the setting).


Archives provide large quantities of inexpensive data. Libraries are indeed archives.

During the process of research, the consultant also collects qualitative documents such as newspapers, minutes of meetings on EIA systems, official reports and internally generated government agency reports.


The consultant takes field notes on the behaviour and activities of participants at the research site.

In these field notes the consultant will record, in unstructured or semi-structured way activities at the research site.

To enable the consultant to eliminate the problem associated with participant observation, they use multiple methods of data collection.

The use of different data collection methods reduce and solve the risk of bias, and other related problems associated with participant observation.

Important Terms:

Social Services - the implantation of new projects in the community is likely to cause an influx of people and exert pressure on existing resources.

Sustainability - this is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment, so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but also for future generations.

Population characteristics - available resources in the community interact closely the road project coming in the community. As such population growth and the resultant competition for available resources will be monitored through the baseline and projections for future population growth.

Administrative structures - local leadership has a bearing on how the project interacts with the community. Therefore inflow of new people and ideas may change the leadership in the area or the project may face resistance owing to cultural or political reasons therefore a closer look at the existing leadership is needed.

Ecological Research Design

The magnitude of a project and its spatial coverage will certainly have impacts on the plants and animals in general.

This assertion necessitates the need for a detailed baseline study on the trees and animals among other biodiversity components.

Project sites falls in areas that may have some wild animals, rangeland and forests, thus a project will have confirmed impacts on these components which if not well mitigated may upset the natural ecology of the area through deforestation and pollution.

Scope of Work

Integrally in all studies, biodiversity assessment will cover the following three levels.

- At a Genetic Level

- At an Ecosystem Level

- At a Community level

At a Genetic level:

The work at this level shall involve establishing the likelihood and magnitude of extinction or reduced viability of species, loss of valuable cultivars or varieties, and/or other ecosystem goods, due to the project installation, through:

- Reduced genetic diversity (small populations are at greater risk than larger ones),

- Reduced opportunities for populations to interact (e.g. habitat fragmentation, physical barriers),

- Increased pressure on localized endemic populations (e.g. where populations are widespread geographically, the risks of extinction are smaller)

- Increased susceptibility to disease or pollutants;

- Genetic contamination (e.g. through introduction of genetically modified organisms)

At a Community level:

Work at this level will involve assessing the likelihood and magnitude of biodiversity loss, including valued ecosystem goods and/or services, through:

- altered species composition of habitats (e.g. loss of species, removal of keystone species);

- Altered species composition of communities (e.g. loss of species, removal of keystone species, etc.);

- Loss of species from the area (e.g. through loss of habitat, increased fragmentation of habitat, reduction in and/or isolation of populations, and/or alien invasive or genetically modified species).

At an Ecosystem level

Work here will involve assessing the likelihood and magnitude of biodiversity loss, including valued ecosystem services, through:

- Changes to ecosystem processes within and between different systems, and at landscape scale (e.g. through removal of keystone species, transformation of important ecotones, interruption of source-sink relationships, and/or major changes to the ecological process drivers’ (e.g. exclusion of fire in fire-driven system));

- Changes in the amount, quality or spatial organisation of habitat (e.g. transformation of natural habitat surrounding protected or conserved areas which meets process needs of ‘focal’ species for persistence;

- Inconsistency or incompatibility with plans to conserve or set aside areas of important biodiversity;

- Changes to ecological linkages and corridors between habitats and ecosystems which could halt or hinder ‘evolutionary processes’ (e.g. isolation and fragmentation of ecosystems, barrier in ecological corridor between mountains and coast, etc.)

A map will then be produced and construction recommendations made.

Wetland Assessment

A determination can be made as to whether or not any wetlands are present through site visits done to gather field information about the topography, soils and vegetation will be made.

If wetland characteristics are present in an area, the boundary of the wetland will need to be established and then marked or delineated with flagging or flagged stakes.

The process of wetland classification takes into cognizance available feasibility and previous work once done in the area under study.

Available maps are digitized and current attribute data is fed into GIS interface for mapping and analysis.

A map will then be produced and construction recommendations made.

The GIS Database

Geographic information systems (GIS) have the ability to store, manipulate, analyse and display large sets of complex, geographically referenced data and are therefore well suited for spatial applications of this nature and complexity.

Some of the attributes listed are:

- the ability to handle large data sets in a spatial framework and the facility for cartographic display, which is a powerful means of conveying results in a way that is easily interpreted.

- Layers of data can be combined or eliminated.

- Areas of environmental constraint are easily identified and can be assigned different weights.

- Buffers can be placed around intrusions, such as sewer and water pipe lines, power lines, roads, or around sensitive areas as wetlands.

The GIS is dynamic and continuous updating of information over time and space, it allows for planning flexibility, auditing and cumulative impact assessment as new developments take place

The physical environment shall be obtained and incorporated into a GIS database, including at least the following elements:

- Surface water flow and impoundments;

- A digital terrain model which will be used to generate drainage patterns and slopes;

- Baseline information on soils, vegetation, natural features;

- Baseline geology and palaeontology, using all available maps on the geology of the area from the Geological Survey, and field surveys;

- Data on rainfall, temperature, wind speeds and direction, evaporation, incidence of extreme weather events from the Meteorological Department;

- Land tenure;

- Extent and nature of current and historic disturbance of land by other activities.

Sustainability Strategies (ESG & Resource Efficiency)

These are deliberate targets toward conserving, protecting, restoring, and improving the supply and quality of natural resources and environmental media (ie. energy, water etc.)

Existing safety and occupational health risks from historic and proposed operations are identified by site visits and interviews.

The size of dust particles and their compositions especially during the construction phase are determined in this exercise.

Detailed aspects of accident, fire and working at height management plans are also included in the exercise.

Noting the above helps to minimise occurrence of accidents during the construction phase of a proposed project.